Question by ?????: I have to write a report on the First and Second Sino-Japanese war…?
This is all the information I already have:
Date1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895
LocationKorea, Manchuria, Taiwan, Yellow Sea
ResultJapanese victory and a significant loss of prestige for the Qing. Korea becomes independent from Qing China.
changesQing China loses the influence of the Korean peninsula to the Empire of Japan.
Qing Dynasty China cedes Taiwan, Penghu, and Liaodong Peninsula to the Empire of Japan
Date7 July 1937 – 9 September 1945 (minor fighting since 1931)
ResultUnconditional surrender of all Japanese forces in China with Allied victory in World War II.
changesRetrocession to China of Manchuria, and renunciation of sovereignty rights for Taiwan and Penghu according to the San Francisco Peace Treaty
Do you have any additional information? Thanks.
1.) I do not know why this was put into language.
2.) This is for a lecture I am doing, I am 75 years old, I am not a kid…I can not find any infomation on the Sino-Japanese wars,
Answer by Erik Van Thienen
Have a look at Wikipedia :
“First Sino-Japanese War” : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War
“Second Sino-Japanese War” : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Japanese_war
From the Encyclopædia Britannica CD :
“Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)”
“conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese Empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea. Korea had long been China’s most important client state, but its strategic location opposite the Japanese islands and its natural resources of coal and iron attracted Japan’s interest. In 1875 Japan, which had begun to adopt Western technology, forced Korea to open itself to foreign, especially Japanese, trade and to declare itself independent from China in its foreign relations.
Japan soon became identified with the more radical modernizing forces within the Korean government, while China continued to sponsor the conservative officials gathered around the royal family. In 1884 a group of pro-Japanese reformers attempted to overthrow the Korean government, but Chinese troops under Gen. Yüan Shih-k’ai rescued the King, killing several Japanese legation guards in the process. War was avoided between Japan and China by the signing of the Li-Ito Convention, in which both nations agreed to withdraw troops from Korea.
In 1894, however, Japan, flushed with national pride in the wake of its successful modernization program and its growing influence upon young Koreans, was not so ready to compromise. In that year, Kim Ok-kyun, the pro-Japanese Korean leader of the 1884 coup, was lured to Shanghai and assassinated, probably by agents of Yüan Shih-k’ai. His body was then put aboard a Chinese warship and sent back to Korea, where it was quartered and displayed as a warning to other rebels. The Japanese government took this as a direct affront, and the Japanese public was outraged. The situation was made more tense later in the year when the Tonghak rebellion broke out in Korea, and the Chinese government, at the request of the Korean king, sent troops to aid in dispersing the rebels. The Japanese considered this a violation of the Li-Ito Convention, and they sent 8,000 troops to Korea. When the Chinese tried to reinforce their own forces, the Japanese sank the British steamer “Kowshing,” which was carrying the reinforcements, further inflaming the situation.
War was finally declared on Aug. 1, 1894. Although foreign observers had predicted an easy victory for the more massive Chinese forces, the Japanese had done a more successful job of modernizing, and they were better equipped and prepared. Japanese troops scored quick and overwhelming victories on both land and sea. By March 1895 the Japanese had successfully invaded Shantung and Manchuria and had fortified posts that commanded the sea approaches to Peking. The Chinese sued for peace.
In the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which ended the conflict, China recognized the independence of Korea and ceded Taiwan, the adjoining Pescadores, and the Liaotung Peninsula in Manchuria.
China also agreed to pay a large indemnity and to give Japan trading privileges on Chinese territory. This treaty was later somewhat modified by Russian fears of Japanese expansion, and the combined intercession of Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaotung Peninsula to China.
China’s defeat encouraged the Western powers to make further demands of the Chinese government. In China itself, the war triggered a reform movement that attempted to renovate the government; it also resulted in the beginnings of revolutionary activity against the Manchu rulers of China.”
“Sino-Japanese War (1937-45)”
“conflict that broke out when China began full-scale resistance to the expansion of Japanese influence in its territory (begun in 1931). In an effort to unseat the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek, the Japanese occupied large areas of eastern China in 1937-38. A stalemate then ensued, and Japanese forces were diverted to Southeast Asia and to the Pacific War against the Western Powers and their allies beginning in 1941. Japan’s World War II defeat by the Allies ended its occupation of China (1945).”
“The Sino-Japanese War
On July 7, 1937, a minor clash between Japanese and Chinese troops near Pei-p’ing (Peking’s name under the National Government) finally led the two nations into war. The Japanese government tried for several weeks to settle the incident locally, but China’s mood was highly nationalistic and public opinion clamoured for resistance to further aggression. In late July, new fighting broke out. The Japanese quickly took Pei-p’ing and captured Tientsin. On August 13 savage fighting broke out in Shanghai. By now the prestige of both nations was committed, and they were locked in a war.
As never before in modern times, the Chinese united themselves against a foreign enemy. China’s standing armies in 1937 numbered some 1,700,000 men, with 500,000 in reserve. Japan’s naval and air superiority were unquestioned. But Japan could not commit its full strength to campaigns in China; the main concern of the Japanese Army was the Soviet Union, while for the Japanese Navy it was the United States.
During the first year of the undeclared war, Japan won victory after victory against sometimes stubborn Chinese resistance. By late December, Shanghai and Nanking had fallen. But China had demonstrated to the world its determination to resist the invader; this gave the government time to search for foreign support. China found its major initial help from the Soviet Union. On Aug. 21, 1937, the Soviet Union and China signed a nonaggression pact, and the former quickly began sending munitions, military advisers, and hundreds of aircraft with Soviet pilots. Japanese forces continued to win important victories. By mid-1938 Japanese armies controlled the railway lines and major cities of northern China. They took Canton on October 12, stopping the railway supply line to Wu-han, the temporary Chinese capital, and captured Han-k’ou, Han-yang, and Wu-ch’ang on October 25-26. The Chinese government and military command moved to Chungking in Szechwan, farther up the Yangtze and behind a protective mountain screen.
At the end of this first phase of the war, the National Government had lost the best of its modern armies, its air force and arsenals, most of China’s modern industries and railways, its major tax resources, and all the ports through which military equipment and civilian supplies might be imported. But it still held a vast though backward territory and had unlimited manpower reserves. So long as China continued to resist, Japan’s control over the conquered eastern part of the country would be difficult.”
“Phase two: stalemate and stagnation
During the second stage of the war (1939-43) the battle lines changed very little, although there were many engagements of limited scale. Japan tried to bomb Free China into submission; Chungking suffered repeated air raids in which thousands of civilians were killed. In 1940 Japan set up a rival government in Nanking under Wang Ching-wei. But the Chinese would not submit. Hundreds of thousands migrated to west China to continue the struggle. Students and faculties of most eastern colleges took the overland trek to makeshift quarters in distant inland towns. Factories and skilled workers were reestablished in the west. The government rebuilt its shattered armies and tried to purchase supplies from abroad.
In 1938-40 the Soviet Union extended credits for military aid of 0,000,000, while the United States, Great Britain, and France granted some 3,500,000 for civilian purchases and currency stabilization. Free China’s lines of supply were long and precarious; when war broke out in Europe, shipping space became scarce. After Germany’s conquest of France in the spring of 1940, Britain bowed to Japanese demands and temporarily closed Rangoon to military supplies for China (July-September). In September 1940 Japan seized control of northern Indochina and closed the supply line to K’un-ming. The Soviet Union had provided China its most substantial military aid, but when Germany attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, this aid virtually ceased. By then, however, the United States had sold China 100 fighter planes–the beginning of a U.S. effort to provide air protection.
In addition to bombing, the civilian population in Free China endured great hardships. Manufactured goods were scarce, and hoarding drove up prices. The government did not have the means to carry out rationing and price control, though it did supply government employees with rice. The government’s sources of revenue were limited, yet it supported a large bureaucracy and an army of more than 3,000,000 conscripts. The government resorted to printing currency inadequately backed by reserves. Inflation grew until it was nearly uncontrollable. Between 1939 and 1943 the morale of the bureaucracy and military officers declined. Old abuses of the Chinese political system reasserted themselves–factional politics and corruption, in particular. The protracted war progressively weakened the Nationalist regime.
The war had the opposite effect upon the CCP. The Communist leaders had survived 10 years of civil war and had developed a unity, camaraderie, and powerful sense of mission. They had learned to mobilize the rural population and to wage guerrilla warfare. In 1937 the CCP had about 40,000 members and the poorly equipped Red Army numbered perhaps 100,000. By agreement with the National Government, the Red Army was renamed the Eighth Route Army (later the 18th Group Army); Zhu De and Peng Dehuai
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